AI, GHRM and Manufacturing

Artifcial intelligence (AI) is constantly trying to meet the criteria of Industry 4.0 by transforming traditional organizations into smart factories where human efforts can be minimized and their talent can be leveraged for attaining organizational sustainability . However, business organizations in developing economies are struggling both internally and externally. On one hand, while orga- nizations have to meet the demands of Industry 4.0 by transforming themselves into smart factories, they on the other hand also have to be responsive to the changing expectations of their customers and environment.

With the increasing pressures of maintaining the environment, reducing waste and implementing cleaner production policies, organizations are shifting their focus to implement green human resource management (green HRM) practices. In order to both meet the ends and satisfy the organizational stakeholders, both internally and externally, companies are relying on AI . AI supports organizations with the advanced digital technologies, cloud computing and data storage facilities, decision-making applications and smart analytical tools.

AI is a not a new concept anymore for developing or developed economies. AI is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. AI is an innovative tool used for transforming the role of management and organizational practices. It is a subpart of computer science, which is concerned with making computers sophisticated so that they can act smartly. It includes various intelligent tasks performed by computers on behalf of human beings such as recognition, reasoning and learning.

AI has changed the pattern of work and decision-making abilities for many organizations with its smart technological approach such as genetic algorithms, neural networks, data mining, text mining, sentiment analysis and interactive voice recognition applications. It improves the decision-making ability and cost effectiveness of the organizations by making decisions on real-time data. However, the question arises: What is artifcial intelligence? Is it a tool, an application, software, a methodology or a thought?

AI cannot be defned in terms of a written defnition, but various researchers defned artifcial intelligence in technical and sociological terms. AI has also been explained through technological background. Technological AI is further disseminated in machine learning technologies and per- ception technologies. Machine learning technologies (MLT) focus on copying the human skills and thinking to presume in order to provide better analytical results. It helps in improving the efficiency and performance automatically for a given task by observing the relevant data. It is mostly used for research and development projects, speech recognition, lie detection, image recognition and several other tasks which depend on human intelligence and decision-making skills.

Perception technologies include computer vision and natural language processing. Computer vision is a form of machine learning which includes recognition of faces, developing predictions, collecting and tagging data, assessing and analyzing data for manufacturing and service industries. Natural language processing is a form of AI whereby individuals can speak with machines and get their work done; for example, the virtual personal assistant Alexa (Amazon Echo), and call center agents. Modern management theories management by objective (MBO) and manage- ment by exception (MBE) are focusing more on green environment issues. Therefore, along with the challenge to sustain in this competitive scenario, companies also have to maintain green HRM practices and functions. With smart and innovative applications, AI helps the organizations attain green HRM functions and practices .

In the era of Industry 4.0 when organizations are transforming into digitalized systems, AI plays a great role in turning imagination into reality. With its smart and digitally equipped applications, AI is of great help for organizations to adopt and implement green HRM practices and functions. Applications like chat boats, digital attendance, job intelligence maestros, automation, distance assistants and e-pass systems are the major AI tools which have been employed by organiza- tions to improve their HRM functions and processes.

With the constantly increasing pressure of environmentalists to maintain and preserve a pollution-free environment, organizations cannot avoid the implementation of GHRM practices. Another reason for the same is increasing customer awareness and concern of job seekers about the organizational policies toward maintaining a sustainable and green environment. Organizations cannot attain sustainable competitive advantage without leveraging the talent of their employees, and talented employees can only be retained with effective HRM policies. Therefore, GHRM has attracted the interest of various scholars, researchers, policymakers and academics after the research initiated by a small group of researchers. Implementation of GHRM practices also helped organizations to minimize carbon emissions, go for paperless approaches and deduct waste production in manufacturing units.